16 Q&As about the COVID-19 Vaccine

Infectious Disease Doctors
Lowell General Hospital’s infectious disease physicians Dr. Adam Weston, Dr. David Sidebottom, and Dr. Francis Magro.

This is a hopeful time. With more and more people getting the vaccine, we can all look forward to a return to a more normal way of life.  

COVID-19 Vaccine FAQ

Here are some of the latest facts from Lowell General Hospital’s Infectious Diseases doctors:

Three vaccines have received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Vaccines from Moderna and Pfizer received authorization in December 2020 and a vaccine by Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) became available in late February 2021. The Pfizer vaccine is available at Lowell General Hospital's Chest and Immunization Center

The J&J/Janssen vaccine requires one dose while Pfizer and Moderna are given in two doses. Pfizer’s vaccine doses are given 21 days apart and Moderna’s vaccine doses are given 28 days apart.

The Pfizer vaccine is authorized for emergency use for those age 12 and older. Moderna’s and J&J/Janssen’s vaccines are authorized for emergency use in those 18 and older.

All of the vaccines are highly effective in all of the populations studied. The Pfizer vaccine is currently the only vaccine available at our Chest and Immunization Center.

No, you cannot develop COVID-19 disease from any of the vaccines nor does the vaccine affect the results of a COVID-19 PCR or antigen test.

The FDA’s review of the vaccines was thorough and rigorous, and no steps were skipped in the process to review the safety of the vaccines. The FDA decided that the vaccines met safety and efficacy standards based on the currently available data from more than 70,000 diverse volunteers, and it was felt the benefits of the vaccines far outweighed the risk of any known side effects.

The FDA and the CDC paused administration of the J&J (Janssen) vaccine in April 2021 due to a small number of vaccine recipients experiencing serious blood clots coupled with low platelet counts. After a thorough review, the CDC advised that vaccination with J&J (Janssen) should resume, but with a warning about the risk of this condition occurring, particularly in women between the ages of 18 and 49. No such risks have been seen with the other two vaccines

No. The genetic material in the COVID-19 vaccines does not change or interact with your DNA in any way. All COVID-19 vaccines work with the body’s natural defenses to safely develop immunity to disease.

The most commonly reported side effects for all COVID-19 vaccines are soreness at the site of the injection as well as flu-like symptoms, including fatigue, body aches, chills or fevers after the vaccine. For Pfizer and Moderna, side effects were most common after the second dose of the vaccine, and more likely to be experienced by younger people. These symptoms go away within the first few days after receiving the vaccine. The side effects tell us that the body is building protection against the virus.

To date, people who have had allergic reactions to the vaccine have all recovered quickly. The risk of allergic reaction is very small and is similar to the risk of allergic reaction associated with all other medications and vaccines.

Yes. The CDC recommends that even people previously infected with COVID-19 be vaccinated. This is because the immunity from vaccination appears to be more reliable than the immunity from natural infection. You can choose to delay your vaccination until 90 days after your infection, because you can be fairly confident your immunity from the infection will last that long. Please wait until you have been released from isolation from your COVID-19 infection before going to a vaccination site.

Evidence is emerging that people get better protection by being fully vaccinated compared with having had COVID-19. One study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than 2 times as likely than fully vaccinated people to get COVID-19 again.

Yes, just be sure to delay your vaccination until you are released from isolation, so that you are no longer contagious to others. Please schedule dose two for as soon as possible after your release from isolation and as long as it is at least 21 days after the first dose of the Pfizer vaccine or at least 28 days after the first dose of the Moderna vaccine

Yes. Whether you are trying to become pregnant now or want to get pregnant in the future, there is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccination causes any problems with pregnancy, including the development of the placenta. In addition, there is no evidence that fertility problems are a side effect of any vaccine, including COVID-19 vaccines. Like all vaccines, scientists are studying COVID-19 vaccines carefully for side effects now and will continue to study them for many years.

The CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccines while pregnant or breastfeeding

Yes. Pregnant individuals are at a higher risk of getting severe COVID-19. For this reason, the CDC, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists strongly recommend that pregnant individuals have access to COVID-19 vaccines. A conversation with your obstetrical doctor or nurse might help you make a decision.

The CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccines while pregnant or breastfeeding

For more information about COVID-19 vaccines and pregnancy, go here.

Yes. The CDC and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine report that there is no reason to believe that the COVID vaccine affects the safety of breastmilk.

The CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccines while pregnant or breastfeeding

For more information, go here.

No, the precautions/allergy statements are different for each vaccine. People who have a known allergy to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) should not receive the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine. People who have a known allergy to polysorbate should not receive the J&J/Janssen vaccine. If you have had a severe or immediate allergic reaction to a prior dose of the Moderna or Pfizer vaccine, you may be able to receive the J&J/Janssen vaccine as your second dose or vice versa. It’s important to discuss this with your primary care physician.

Other types of allergy histories, such as an immediate allergic reaction to another vaccine or injectable therapy, or a history of anaphylaxis due to any cause are considered by the CDC to be a precaution. People who have these reactions should receive the vaccines, but should be observed for 30 minutes (rather than 15) after each dose of vaccine.

Allergic reactions (including severe allergic reactions) not related to vaccines or injectable therapies (e.g., allergic reactions to food, pet, venom, environmental or latex allergies, or oral medications including the oral equivalents of injectable medications) are not a contraindication or precaution to vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines. For more information, see CDC Vaccines & Immunizations.

Yes. There are no known reactions or interactions between oral medications and the COVID vaccines.

Yes. Studies show that the vaccines are extremely effective at preventing COVID-19 illness in vaccinated people. The vaccines are also very effective at preventing asymptomatic infection. When vaccinated people do develop infection, the amount of virus carried in their secretions is lower. Overall, this means that vaccines protect not just you but others.

At Lowell General Hospital, we continue to require our employees, patients and visitors to be screened at the entrance to our hospital and to wear a face mask at all times even if fully vaccinated.

The CDC updated its guidance:

If you are fully vaccinated, to maximize protection from the Delta variant and prevent possibly spreading it to others, wear a mask indoors in public if you are in an area of substantial or high transmission.

  • If you are not fully vaccinated and aged 2 or older, you should wear a mask in indoor public places.
  • In general, you do not need to wear a mask in outdoor settings. However, in areas with high numbers of COVID-19 cases, consider wearing a mask in crowded outdoor settings and for activities with close contact with others who are not fully vaccinated.
  • People who have a condition or are taking medications that weaken their immune system may not be fully protected even if they are fully vaccinated. They should continue to take all precautions recommended for unvaccinated people, including wearing a well-fitted mask, until advised otherwise by their healthcare provider.
  • If you are fully vaccinated, to maximize protection from the Delta variant and prevent possibly spreading it to others, wear a mask indoors in public if you are in an area of substantial or high transmission.

Wearing a mask over your nose and mouth is required on planes, buses, trains, and other forms of public transportation traveling into, within, or out of the United States and while indoors at U.S. transportation hubs such as airports and stations. Travelers are not required to wear a mask in outdoor areas of a conveyance (like on open deck areas of a ferry or the uncovered top deck of a bus).

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